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Fillable Printable Sample Message Mapping

Fillable Printable Sample Message Mapping

Sample Message Mapping

Sample Message Mapping

MESSAGE MAPPING
Author: Dr. Vincent Covello
SAMPLE MESSAGE MAP – SMALLPOX (WITH KEYWORDS IN ITALICS)
Stakeholder: Public
Question or Concern: How contagious is smallpox?
FIGURE FIVE: SAMPLE SMALLPOX MESSAGE MAP – WITH KEYWORDS IN ITALICS
Key Message 1 Key Message 2 Key Message 3
Smallpox
spreads slowly
compared to other diseases.
The slow spread of smallpox
allows
time to find
those
Infected.
People infected with smallpox
can be vaccinated
to prevent
illness.
Supporting Information 1-1 Supporting Information 2-1 Supporting Information 3-1
People are only infectious
when the rash appears.
The time period before smallpox
symptoms appear is 10–14 days
People who have never been
vaccinated are the most
important to vaccinate.
Supporting Information 1-2 Supporting Information t 2-2 Supporting Information 3-2
Smallpox typically requires
hours of face-to-face contact.
Resources are available for
Finding people who may have
become infected with smallpox.
Adults who were vaccinated for smallpox as
children may still have some
immunity.
Supporting Information 1-3 Supporting Information 2-3 Supporting Information 3-3
There are no smallpox carriers without
symptoms.
Finding people who have been
exposed to smallpox and
vaccinating them
has proved successful in the past.
Adequate smallpox vaccine is on hand.
Nine Principles of Message Mapping
1)
Limiting the number of key messages to a maximum of three using no more
than 9 seconds or 27 words to express the necessary information.
2)
Constructing messages that can be easily understood by an adult with a 6th
to 8th grade education. This can be tested using the “readability” utility
contained in a number of word-processing programs.
3)
Adhering to the “primacy/recency” or “first/last” principle. This principle
states that the most important messages should occupy the first and last
position in a list.
4)
Citing third parties or sources that would be perceived as credible by the
receiving audience.
5)
Providing a preamble to the message map that indicates genuine empathy,
listening, caring and compassion – crucial factors in establishing trust in
high-concern, high-stress situations.
6)
Using graphics, visual aids, analogies and narratives (such as personal
stories) can increase an individual’s ability to hear, understand and recall a
message by more than 50%.
7)
Constructing messages while recognizing the dominant role of negative
thinking in high-concern situations. Examples include: avoiding
unnecessary, indefensible or non-productive uses of absolutes, and of the
words “no”, “not”, “never”, “nothing” and “none”; balancing or countering a
negative key message with positive, constructive or solution-oriented key
messages; and providing three or more positive points to counter a single
negative point or bad news.
8)
Presenting the full message map using the repetitive structure found in the
“Tell me, Tell me more, Tell me again model” (the “Triple T Model”):
Tell people the information in summary form (i.e., the three key messages;
Tell them more (i.e., the supporting information); and Tell people again what
was told in summary form (i.e., repeat the three key messages).
9) Developing key messages and supporting information that address important
risk perception, outrage and fear factors such as trust, benefits, control,
voluntariness, dread, fairness, reversibility, catastrophic potential, effects on
children, morality, origin and familiarity.
Risk and Crisis Communication
Message Mapping Template
Stakeholder:
Question:
Key message 1 (Bold face):
Supporting Information 1:
Supporting Information 2:
Supporting Information 3:
Key message 2 (Bold face):
Supporting Information 1:
Supporting Information 2:
Supporting Information 3:
Key message 3 (Bold face):
Supporting Information 1:
Supporting Information 2:
Supporting Information 3:
Sample Risk and Crisis Communication Message Map
1) Question: What are chloramines?
KM 1. Chloramines are disinfectants used to treat drinking water.
Chloramines are most commonly formed when ammonia is added to
chlorine to treat drinking water.
The most typical purpose of chloramines is to protect water quality as it
moves through pipes.
Chloramines provide long lasting protection as they do not break down
quickly in water pipes.
KM 2. Chloramines of greatest regulatory interest are monochloramine,
dichloramine, and trichloramine.
If chloramines are used to disinfect drinking water, monochloramine is the
most common type.
Dichloramine and trichloramine are produced when treating drinking water
but at much lower levels than monochloramine.
Trichloramines are typically associated with disinfected water used in
swimming pools.
KM 3. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates the safe use of
chloramines.*
EPA requires water utilities to meet strict health standards when using
chloramines to treat water.
EPA chloramine regulations are based on the average concentrations of
chloramines found in a water system over time.
EPA regulates chemicals formed when chloramines react with natural
organic matter** in water.
Additional Supporting Information:
*The drinking water standard for chloramines is 4 parts per million (ppm)
measured as an annual average. More information on water utility use of
chloramines is available at http://www.epa.gov/safewater/disinfection/index.html
and in the 1997-1998 Information Collection Rule, a national survey of large
drinking water utilities for the Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR).
Information on the Stage 2 DBPR is available at
//www.epa.gov/safewater/disinfection/stage2/.
**Natural organic matter is a complex mixture of compounds formed as a result
of the breakdown of animal and plant material in the environment; source:
//www.iwahq.org/templates/ld_templates/layout_633184.aspx?ObjectId=661
579.
Vincent T. Covello, Ph.D.
Center for Risk Communication
29 Washington Square West, Suite 2A
New York, New York 10011
Email: [email protected]etcom.com
77 Questions Commonly Asked by Journalists during a Crisis
(
Reprinted from: Covello, V.T., Keeping Your Head In A Crisis: Responding To Communication Challenges Posed By Bio-
terrorism And Emerging Infectious Diseases. Association of State and Territorial Health Officers (ASTHO), 2003)
Journalists are likely to ask six questions in a crisis (who, what, where, when, why, how) that relate to three
broad topics: (1) what happened; (2) What caused it to happen; (3) What does it mean.
Specific questions include:
1)
What is your name and title?
2)
What are you job responsibilities?
3)
What are your qualifications?
4)
Can you tell us what happened?
5)
When did it happen?
6)
Where did it happen?
7)
Who was harmed?
8)
How many people were harmed?
9)
Are those that were harmed getting help?
10)
How certain are you about this information?
11)
How are those who were harmed getting help?
12)
Is the situation under control?
13)
How certain are you that the situation is under control?
14)
Is there any immediate danger?
15)
What is being done in response to what happened?
16)
Who is in charge?
17)
What can we expect next?
18)
What are you advising people to do?
19)
How long will it be before the situation returns to normal?
20)
What help has been requested or offered from others?
21)
What responses have you received?
22)
Can you be specific about the types of harm that occurred?
23)
What are the names of those that were harmed?
24)
Can we talk to them?
25)
How much damage occurred?
26)
What other damage may have occurred?
27)
How certain are you about damages?
28)
How much damage do you expect?
29)
What are you doing now?
30)
Who else is involved in the response?
31)
Why did this happen?
32)
What was the cause?
33)
Did you have any forewarning that this might happen?
34)
Why wasn’t this prevented from happening?
35)
What else can go wrong?
36)
If you are not sure of the cause, what is your best guess?
37)
Who caused this to happen?
38)
Who is to blame?
39)
Could this have been avoided?
40)
Do you think those involved handled the situation well enough?
41)
When did your response to this begin?
42)
When were you notified that something had happened?
43)
Who is conducting the investigation?
44)
What are you going to do after the investigation?
45)
What have you found out so far?
46)
Why was more not done to prevent this from happening?
47)
What is your personal opinion?
48)
What are you telling your own family?
49)
Are all those involved in agreement?
50)
Are people over reacting?
51)
Which laws are applicable?
52)
Has anyone broken the law?
53)
How certain are you about whether laws have been broken?
54)
Has anyone made mistakes?
55)
How certain are you that mistakes have not been made?
56)
Have you told us everything you know?
57)
What are you not telling us?
58)
What effects will this have on the people involved?
59)
What precautionary measures were taken?
60)
Do you accept responsibility for what happened?
61)
Has this ever happened before?
62)
Can this happen elsewhere?
63)
What is the worst case scenario?
64)
What lessons were learned?
65)
Were those lessons implemented? Are they being implemented now?
66)
What can be done to prevent this from happening again?
67)
What would you like to say to those who have been harmed and to their families?
68)
Is there any continuing danger?
69)
Are people out of danger? Are people safe? Will there be inconvenience to employees
or to the public?
70)
How much will all this cost?
71)
Are you able and willing to pay the costs?
72)
Who else will pay the costs?
73)
When will we find out more?
74)
What steps need to be taken to avoid a similar event?
75)
Have these steps already been taken? If not, why not?
76)
Why should we trust you?
77)
What does this all mean?
Basic Risk Communication/Message
Mapping Templates*
Use these templates to create effective
messages in high concern situations
CCO TEMPLATE
Use when asked a question with high-
emotion
Steps:
Compassion
Conviction
Optimism
Example: (1) “I am very sorry to hear
about…; (2) I firmly believe that…;(3) In the
future, I believe that ….
“WHAT IF” TEMPLATE
Use when asked a low probability “what
if, what might happen” question
Steps:
Repeat the question (without negatives)
Bridge to “what is”
State what you know factually
Example: (1) “You’ve asked me what might
happen if….; (2) I believe there is value to
talk about what is, what we know now; (3)
And what we know is…”
--------------------------------------------------
*Source: Dr. Vincent T. Covello , Center for
Risk Communication, Copyright 2013
5
BRIDGING TEMPLATES
Use when you want to return to your key
points or redirect the communication
1.“And what’s most important to know
is…”
2.“However, what is more important to
look at is…”
3.“However, the real issue here is…”
4.“And what this all means is…”
5.“And what’s most important to
remember is …”
6.“With this in mind, if we look at the
bigger picture…”
7.
“With this in mind, if we take a look
back…”
8.“If we take a broader perspective, …”
9.“If we look at the big picture…”
10.“Let me put all this in perspective by
saying…”
11.
“What all this information tells me is…”
12.“Before we continue, let me take a step
back and repeat that…”
13.“Before we continue, let me emphasize
that…”
14.“This is an important point because…”
15.“What this all boils down to is…”
6
1N=3P TEMPLATE
(ONE NEGATIVE EQUALS THREE
POSITIVES) /BAD NEWS TEMPLATE
Use when breaking bad news or stating
a negative
Recommendation: Balance one bad news
or negative message with a least three
or more positive, constructive, or
solution oriented messages
AGL-4 TEMPLATE (AVERAGE GRADE
LEVEL MINUS FOUR TEMPLATE)
Use when responding to any high stress
or emotionally charged question
Recommendation: Provide information
at four or more grade levels below the
average grade level of the audience.
GUARANTEE TEMPLATE
Use when asked to guarantee an event
or outcome
Steps
Indicate that the question is about the
future
Indicate that the past and the present
help predict the future
Bridge to known facts, processes or
actions
Example: (1) “You’ve asked me for a
guarantee, to promise something about the
future; (2) The best way I know to talk about
the future is to talk about what we know
from the past and the present; (3) And what
we know is…” OR
“What I can guarantee [assure; promise; tell
you] is…”
YES/NO TEMPLATE
Use when asked a yes/no question that
cannot be answered yes or no
Steps
Indicate you have been asked a yes/no
question
Indicate it would be difficult to answer
the question yes or no
Indicate why it would be difficult to
answer the question yes or no
Respond to the underlying concern
2
IDK (I DON’T KNOW) TEMPLATE
Use when you don’t know, can’t answer, or
aren’t best source
Steps
Repeat the question (without negatives)
Say “I wish I could answer that”; or “My ability
to answer is limited by …;” or “I don’t know”
(often least preferred)
Say why you can’t answer
Provide a follow up with a deadline
Bridge to what you can say
Example: (1) “You’ve asked me…; (2) I wish I
could answer your question…; (3) This is not my
field of expertise…; (4) I will do my best to get an
answer…; (5) I expect to be able to tell you more
by …; (6) What I can tell you is…”
FALSE ALLEGATION TEMPLATE
Use when responding to a hostile question,
false allegation, or criticism
Steps
Repeat/paraphrase the question without
repeating the negative; repeat instead the
opposite; the underlying value or concern, or
use more neutral language
Indicate the issue is important
Indicate what you have done, are doing, or
will do to address the issue
Example: (1) “You’ve raised a serious question
about “x”; (2) “x” is important to me; (3) We are
doing the following to address “x.”
3
27/9/3 TEMPLATE
Use when responding to any high
stress or emotionally charged
question
Recommendation: Be brief and
concise in your first response: no
more than 27 words, 9 seconds,
and 3 messages
PRIMACY/RECENCY TEMPLATE
Use when responding to any high
stress or emotionally charged
question
Recommendation: Provide the most
important items or points first and
last
RULE OF 3 TEMPLATE
Use when responding to any high
stress or emotionally charged
question
Recommendation:Provide no more
than three messages, ideas, or
points at a time
Example: My three main points are:
(1) …; (2)….; and (3)….
4
Advanced Risk
Communication/Message Mapping
Templates*
Use these advanced templates to create
effective messages in high concern, high
stress situations
TBC TEMPLATE
when responding to questions or
concerns indicating high perceived risks
or outrage.
(T)rust Message (For example,
messages communicating listening,
caring, honesty, transparency, or
competence)
(B)enefit Message (For example,
messages communicating benefits to the
individual, organization, or society)
(C)ontrol Message (For example,
messages that give people things to do
or that increase their sense of hope or
self- efficacy.
-------------------------------------------------
*Source: Dr. Vincent T. Covello , Center for
Risk Communication, Copyright 2009
5
KDG TEMPLATE
Use to give upset people a greater sense of
control.
(K)now Message: Share what is most
important for people to know.
(D)o Message: Share what is most important
for people to do
(G)o Message: Share where people should
go for credible information
KDD TEMPLATE
Use to give upset people a greater sense of
control
(K)now Message: Share what is most
important for people to know.
(D)o Message: Share what you are doing to
address the concern
(D)o Message: Share what people can do to
address the concern
6
CARING/SHARING TEMPLATE
Use when responding to a question
or statement containing incorrect
information.
Caring Message: State what you
and the person holding incorrect
information have in common.
Sharing (1) Message: Invite the
person holding incorrect information
to share their information with you
Sharing (2) Message: Re-share
your information
Example: (1)”I assume you asked this
question because you care about ….,
which I also care about; (2) I would
greatly appreciate your sharing with me
all the information you have so I can
review it; (3) In the meantime, the
information I have indicates…”
CAP TEMPLATE
Use when responding to a high concern
question or statement
(C)aring Message: Provide a message
indicating caring, concern, empathy, or
compassion. The message should
communicate the seriousness of the
situation.
(A)ction Message: State actions you
have, are, or will take to address the
issue or problem. For example, the
message might indicate you are
cooperating with other organizations or
conducting an investigation.
(P)erspective Message: Provide
information that puts the issue in
perspective or context.
Uncertainty Template
Use when the immediate goal is build,
maintain, or restore trust in the face of large
uncertainties
(A)knowledge Uncertainty Message:
Identify uncertainties, gaps and challenges.
(A)ction Message: State actions you have,
are, or will take to address uncertainty. (For
example, cooperating with other
organizations or conducting an investigation.)
(F)ollow Up Message: Provide information
on where people can obtain timely and
credible information.
Acknowledging Uncertainty Statements:
Examples
• “I wish we knew more.”
• “There are still many uncertainties.”
• “I had hoped we could be more certain by now.”
• “It must be difficult to hear how many
uncertainties there are.
• “There is still much that we need to know…”
• “There are many unanswered questions...”
• “There is a range of expert opinion on this
issue.”
TPS Template
Use to enhance credibility when
credibility is or will be challenged
(T)hird
(P)arty
(S)upport
Cite third party support and validation
for key messages and supporting facts.
Support should ideally come from three
to four individuals or organizations high
on the stakeholder’s credibility ladder.
For example, for health, safety, and
environmental messages, these might
include medical authorities, advisory
boards, local leaders, educators, and fire
and police officials.
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